The Lovejoy Revolution, or the Revolution of Fortieth Century, was a revolution and civil war that occurred between 3071 to 3081, resulting in the rebellion against and eventual collapse of the Republic of Manhattan, and established the United Galactic Commonwealth. It ran concurrent to the Third Kingdom-Republic War and the Ancheran-Republic War, sometimes collective referred to as the First Great Galactic War.
Much of the rebellion and war was a result of the disastrous mishandling of the Ancheran-Republic War, specially the revelations leading to the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria that led to disorganization in the military and waning public support of the institutional xenophobia that had led to the genocide of over 3-billion Ancherans.
Quickly following the fighting at Gorchaa Nmria, rebellion and cessation erupted in the form of colonial revolts, Capecchi uprisings and conscript desertion that coalesced together into a united military front against the Republic regime of Prides. The turning point was the Singapore Uprising in October 3071, that was able to succeed where previous conscript and Capecchi revolts had failed. It followed the botched assassination attempt on a member of the royal family of the Kingdom of New Budapest, sparking the Third Kingdom-Republic War.
Tensions between the federal government under Commissioner Roman Yamato and the legislative branch in the form of the High Congress of the Republic, following the assassination of President Josephina Lovett and Vice Presidents Arturo Alvear, Sebastian Tamar and Richard Mondale. Outright civil war erupted following the cessation of the Wrangel Length region and the formation of the Western Confederation of Independent Worlds, when forces loyal to the High Congress began to battle forces loyal to Commissioner Yamato.
- Republic of Manhattan
- Ancheran Federal Union
- Free Worlds Alliance
- Gillespie Wanders
- United Stellar Federation
- Kingdom of New Budapest
- Western Confederation of Independent Worlds
- Hanowa Mercantile Guild
- Kihavi Colonial Alliance
Cappechi vs. Prides
The sour relationship between the Capecchi and the Prides can be tracked back well before the Sol Gamma Wave of 2601. Genetic engineering had just become popular among new colonial ventures of the Earth Federation in the 24th Century, generally among settler groups who could not afford expensive terraforming operations, were unwilling to wait the usual century or two for completion or didn't wish to modify their environment. For every new colony founded and terraformed through traditional practices, between three to five were established using genetic engineering to modify the settlers.
These groups, while genetically modifying themselves with thousands of different methods to survive the vast variety of worlds they would settle, took the over-reaching title Capecchi, named after Mario Ramberg Capecchi, an Italian-born American molecular geneticist who was one of the scientists who discovered the method to create mice in which a specific gene is turned off, known as (knockout mice) in 1989. His research eventually became the contemporary basis for Human genetic engineering.
This caused a schism among the supporters of genetic engineering and traditionalists who believe modifications to the Human genom to be dangerous. Many conversative colonial groups refused to deal with the more numerous modified settlers and they found much economic backing from the core worlds of the Federation. As a result, most of the genetically unmodified colonists, whilst smaller in number, were economically more well off.
When the Sol Gamma Wave of 2601 erupted, most of the core worlds of the Federation and their largely genetically unmodified populations were destroyed. Where as on the Federation frontier, a large portion of the frontier worlds and their genetically-modified colonists managed to escape unharmed. In total, of the millions of people who survived the disaster, only a tiny percentage were unmodified Humans and those predominately were groups that managed to fleet the destruction and find shelter among those conservative, traditionalist worlds.
The traditionalist soon took the name Prides, taking the idea from ancient Earth lions and their strong pure-breed bloodlines.
The smaller population of Prides quickly came to resent the Capecchi, whose worlds quickly became a source of much of the strife and pricacy that followed in the wake of the Fall of the Earth Federation, primarily against the more economically stable worlds. Capecchi piracy and aggression, along with the Prides traditionalist values and intention to keep their rich economies whole, was one of the leading factors that led to the foundation of the Republic of Manhattan.
While it was every intention of the famed Renaud Yamato, the father of the modern Republic navy, to take offensive action against Capecchi worlds and facilities for fear of inciting them to organize and launch a war the Republic was ill equipped to win, following his death in 2660 public opinion and those of the military changed.
President Mona Allenson-Wallenberg quickly began calls for their people to stand together above the "mongrels" and "mutants", that their pureblood status meant that their unmodified genetics meant they were destined to be the succeeding state after the Earth Federation, not a Capecchi civilization.
This quickly led to the Restoration Wars, a series of conflicts, skirmishes and annexation of Capecchi worlds, with a minority of Prides worlds among them, by the Republic and the conscription of their populations. As of the 31st Century, this led to the Prides domination of over a 148 Capecchi worlds and their people, while only 71 Prides populated worlds are controlled by the Republic.
Carthage Sector Dispute
The President Josephina Lovett, who personified the conservative Republic court and controlled party politics for 17-years, supporting the Republic’s continued imperialism to annex the former Earth Federation colonies and the dominance of Prides over Capecchi.
During her time in office, Lovett had to contend with continued economic hardship created by the Ancheran Federal Union. The Republic had expanded around the Union into several resource rich systems of the Carthage Sector, located on the far-side of Ancheran space. However Ancheran space covered a significant portion of the Republic border and the Ancherans refused to allow Republic vessels unrestricted transit across their territory, instead opting for the Republic freighters to detour through the Apulia Passage, the area of space between the core Ancheran colonies and its recently annexed territories of the old Moulern Empire.
While tariffs and taxes were rescinded for Republic transports traveling through the region as an appeasement, the lack of Republic owned or leased refueling depots or colonies in the Apulia Passage meant the Ancherans could raise fuel and food prices for transiting civilian crafts.
The result was that most freighters leaving the colonies of Echo, Hannibal, Herodotus or Santa Catarina had to travel 8-months to reach Manhattan, instead of the 1-month transit across Ancheran space and were reliant on foreign support to travel (Republic xenophobia considered this insulting).
Operation Derringer & British Bulldog
Attempts by Lovett to negotiate a free-trade and transit treaty with the Ancheran Ambassador Remako Dah failed on three separate occasions, the last being in 3070. With public support for the Lovett Administration falling and an expected sweep of the High Congress of the Republic (who appointed Lovett to the presidency) by the opposition party, the Institutional Constitution Party, the president devised Operation Derringer and Operation British Bulldog. These operatiosn would be in conjunction with military support provided by Admiral of the Fleet Kristin Blethyn, economic/material support provided by Charlottenhof Refining CEO Gunter Siekmann and Republic Stellar Now News CEO Rahman Palash feeding misinformation to the public. High Commissioner Roman Yamato and Vice Presidents Reinhold Oettinger, Sebastian Tamar, Arturo Alvear and Richard Mondale were also made aware, though Oettinger, Yamato and Mondale did not support the endeavor.
Operation Dessinger called for a smear campaign Ancheran Federal Union that would end in the violent attack against a defenseless frontier of the Republic. Following the phase’s success, Operation British Bulldog was a decapitation strike again the Ancheran homeworld of Gorchaa Nmria, in justified retaliation. The result would be a demoralized Union that would sue for peace in the face of an overwhelm Republic military and eventually be broken up as a new annexed region of the Republic. Singapore colony in the Johor-system was chosen in April 3071 as the frontier world to use, as a conscript revolt among the native Capecchi, the Encantado, could be hidden with the news of an Ancheran blockade. A violent reprisal against the otherwise peaceful Capecchi population would had revolted due to the conscription of its population for the terraforming of their world could be covered up with word of the blockade. Following the put down of the revolt, large portions of the Encantado population would be taken in order to be used as shock troops, since both the Encantado and Ancherans were aquatic species.
The success of this hinged on the Ancheran Federal Union, in the midst of its winter hibernation (a month long hibernation every seven-years), could be blamed without fear of immediate response. With minor edits to the public information nets, the Ancheran winter hibernation dates could be swapped with the once a decade festival to the Ancheran war god Aren'keyi, when the Union would conquer an otherwise enemy or problematic world for annexation. It was hoped that the otherwise secular nature of the Republic would spark enough resentment that most people would not actively question it.
Under the leadership of the carrier RMS Chariot, Fleet Admiral David Triana took the cruisers RMS Eliza Hendricks, Julia Tyler, Hannah Tompkins and the destroyers RMS Hafir, Santa Fe, Kalev, Tyr, Galathea and Ørnen, establishing a general blockade of the Johor-system on 28 April 3071 and disabling or grounding all intra-system traffic from the populated worlds of Hsein or Singapore.
At first the operation was a success, the Encantado conscript revolt on Singapore was blocked in the news and the public at large believed an Ancheran blockade had sealed off the Johor-system, leading to a diplomatic crisis when investors became concerned about the economic disaster this could create for trade between the Carthage Sector. However enterprising Ambassador Myna Tallman used her personal wealth to secure transport on the RMTS Starfire of New York on 3 May 3071 and also backing from Captain Carlo Berlusconi, who took command of the vessel as Tallman’s military advisor and appointed the destroyers RMS Shu Shen and Nautilus to escort them.
When Lovett gained word of Tallman’s mission, she personally ordered the cruiser RMS Eliza Hendricks to break from the Johor Blockade and engage the vessels with the intent to destroy the flotilla and paint it as the first step of Ancheran aggression against Singapore. Captain Mary McNair however refused, questioning the legitimacy of the operation and was replaced to await court martial, her XO, Commander Phineas Seymour was placed in command.
The Starfire and its escorts arrived on 8 May 3071 and came under immediate attack from the Eliza Hendricks. Tactically inexperienced, Seymour destroyed the Shu Shen and Nautilus, while downing the Starfire. Because he failed to follow up, believing the weak civilian transport never designed for atmospheric flight would disintegrate on reentry. Due to their location in the observation deck atop the vessel, Ambassador Tallman, news reporter Roland Yamato (High Commissioner Romand Yamato's son) and a critically injured Captain Berlusconi managed to survive reentry because of the extra armouring over the otherwised exposed gap in the hull and escape to the surface of Singapore.
Recovery by the Encantado
Recovered by the local Encantado rebels, the trio soon discerned that large portions of the adult Encantado population were being shipped off-world, while known armory ships were refueling at Hsein but not off-loading the armaments they carried to the occupation forces on Singapore. They soon deduced that the Republic had used the inherent secularism and xenophobia in the Republic to orchestrate a phony war against the Ancherans, with the intent to use the Encantado as conscripted shock troops. Being that the Ancherans were an aquatic species native to a low gravity world, the amphibious Encantado were native to a high gravity world, they'd make the perfect ground infantry with proper threat.
Tracking several fuel freighters from Hsein and transport ships from Singapore, the rebels and Captain Berlusconi discerned that a sizable fleet was being massed in the nearby Ang Mo Kio Nebula, a natural stellar barrier that separated the Republic from Ancheran space, also preventing any detection inside the nebula. The fleet of 116 ships was under the personal command of Admiral of the Fleet Kristin Blethyn.
Berlusconi Sacrifice & Lovejoy's Creation
Yamato and Berlusconi managed to formulate a plan, in order to gain the Ancheran’s attention about the Republic fleet; they needed to spark an accident noticeable in the otherwise static created by the nebula’s natural background radiation. Berlusconi allowed himself to be captured on 18 May 3071, appearing as to have been held hostage by the Encantado. This was due in part because Berlusconi had suffered extreme radiation exposure during the Starfire crash and was slowly suffering organ failure and radition sickness.
During this period Roland decided to change his name, in order to remove association to his father the High Commissioner, a known anti-Capecchi supporter. He adopted the name Renaud, after his ancestor and progenitor of his family Renaud Yamato, along with the surname Lovejoy, after the 19th Century abolitionist Elijah and Owen Lovejoy.
A close colleague of Admiral of the Fleet Blethyn, Berlusconi dropped a hint to a forming Encantado mutiny among those taken as shock troops to the fleet. In order to facilitate this, he provided information that five Encantado operatives were planning a bombing of the Jurong Fuel Depot in the main Republic and predominately Pride settlement of Jurong City, Singapore on 20 May 3071. Unknown to Blethyn, these operatives were a plant and all five intentionally provoked the approaching Republic security forces to shot to kill.
Blethyn ordered Berlusconi to be brought to the fleet abroad the destroyer RMS Kalev on 22 May 3071, both to gain the information he professed and to remove the well-known captain from the eyes of the naval enlisted who he was immensely popular with. Unknown to any, Berlusconi had himself implanted with Heng ah Coral, an explosive form of marine coral native to Singapore. Due to his radition exposure, the presence of the coral was unknown when he was brought through quaratine to the ship.
While abroad the Kalev later that same day, Berlusconi used his knowledge of the destroyer, who’s class he had helped to design, to gain access to the main reactor of the craft. Positioning himself along the coolant intake lines, Berlusconi electrocuted himself with an exposed outlet, igniting the coral. Timing his approach to just the moment when the Kalev would be transiting through a particularly dense hydrogen pocket in the Ang Mo Kio Nebula, the destroyer jettisoned is main reactor which was in melt down, switched to backups and made an attempt to flee.
The explosion yielded enough energy and force to severely damage the Kalev but also to ignite the surrounding hydrogen, this ultimately obliterated the destroyer. The eruption would be enough to be noticed by Ancheran’s Eros'teros Border Station, 3.2 light-days away. As the nebula technically was neutral space as per Farlow Treaty, an intensive survey of the surrounding area would of course turn up the Republic fleet, who's energy readings were numerous enough to be noticed through the static.
Johor Blockade Exposed
Fearing that Operation Derringer was in jeopardy Lovett and Blethyn decided to continue against the protests of Commissioner Yamato, for several reasons:
- When the Ancheran Federal Union found itself blamed for the Singapore Blockade, it could retaliate by closing the Apulia Passage, crippling the Republic investments in the Carthage Sector.
- Public opinion would swing against President Lovett and the High Congress if they supported a peace settlement with the Ancherans.
- The destruction of Ambassador Tallman’s envoy had galvanized the people who had deemed her a martyr for the war.
- The posed-Ancheran attack, really the assaulting Republic fleet putting down the Encantado revolt, had just broken headlines hours before, launching the nation into demands for war.
- Discontent brought on by Captain McNair’s arrest and court martial had caused concerns that the loyalty of Admiral Blethyn’s fleet was not absolute, noting that three destroyers and four frigates had seen apparent acts of sabotage or questionable damage.
Seeing that aborting Derringer would result in more damage, President Lovett gave Admiral of the Fleet Blethyn permission to launch Operation British Bulldog on 23 May 3071, the military strike on the Ancheran homeworld of Gorchaa Nmria. Their first stop however was Singapore, specifically the bombardment of the Encantado settlements, rebellious or otherwise.
Counteracting this however was the surviving Lovejoy and Ambassador Tallman. Capturing the key points of the Singapore mag-level network under the silence of a hyper-hurricane (a common and continious weather system on a ocean world like Singapore), they managed to evacuate most of the Encantado settlements to the southern poles, where the ice caps helped to dissipate most of the intense heat created from the sustained planetary bombardment. In total, they moved over 16,000,000 Encantado to safety in only eighteen hours.
While Admiral Blethyn believed she had killed over 95% of the Encantado population, she had only killed around 80,000 or 5%, all of whom had remained behind to give the appearance of the Encantado presence.
When Blethyn moved on to Gorchaa Nmria, the bulk of the Encantado remained hidden at the Singapore south pole, while a Encantado strike team led by Lovejoy and Tallman managed to capture a shuttle at the Jurong Spaceport and escaped the planet on 24 May 3071.
Concurrent to this Captain McNair sparked a rebellion abroad the RMS Eliza Hendricks, when rebellious elements of the crew overthrew Commander Seymour. McNair ordered the shuttle fleeing Jurong Spaceport to be brought abroad, believing it to be her tactical officer Lieutenant Commander Victorius Philip (Seymour had Phillip executed.)
They instead seized the shuttle carrying Tallman, Lovejoy and their Encantado escorts. Knowing Tallman from previous encounters, McNair allowed her to board as she directed the Eliza Hendricks to flee the system. They came under fire from the sister ships RMS Julia Tyler and Hannah Tompkins, but the RMS Hafir and Santa Fe intervened. The Julia Tyler and Hafir was destroyed in the battle, while the Santa Fe ended up ramming the Hannah Tompkins, destroying both vessels. The destroyers RMS Tyr, Galathea and Ørnen were at Hsein at the time and began to move to engage the Eliza Hendricks.
McNair ordered the ship to retreat. Expecting that Blethyn would retreat and that the attack on Singapore had been revenge for toppling her plans, the rogue group were horrified to discover that the Admiral and her fleet had continued on to the Ancheran homeworld.
Arriving in the New York-system on 28 May 3071, Lovejoy used his contacts in Stellar Now New to alert CEO Rahman Palash of Admiral Blethyn’s plans to assault the Ancheran homeworld in a decapitation strike. Palash, invited Lovejoy to his office with the intent of killing them, both to silence them and as revenge against High Commissioner Yamato who had been his political enemy for years. Palash’s plan was however found out and he was killed before he could strike, allowing Lovejoy to broadcast his confession on Stellar Now New primetime network, SNN12 and on one of the few live and unrestricted new channels that could be seen outside Republic territory, especially in Ancheran space.
Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria
This action alerted the Ancheran Federal Navy, who quickly began to position its home guard fleet to defend Gorchaa Nmria. When Blethyn arrived on 29 May 3071, she found that the Ancheran home guard fleet was active and positioned to intercept her forces as they entered the system at flank speed.
While the Ancherans fleets were numerically smaller, they were technologically more advanced than the Republic fleet. This resulted in the Ancherans being able to attack from outside the Republic weapon’s range while fast enough to avoid direct confrontation. Blethyn lost 30 ships to the Ancheran Federal Navy before it even arrived in Gorchaa Nmria-orbit.
Admiral of the Fleet Blethyn however ignored the fleet and instead attempted to take Gorchaa Nmria itself, seeing that the Ancherans would engage her directly if they threatened their homeworld. Widespread tactical bombardments began, leveling many of the Ancheran major cities. Impacts were also intended to create maximum collateral damage, like targeting several of Gorchaa Nmria’s major fault lines to provoke violent earthquakes.
She ordered the Encantado shock troops landed to the major Ancheran space ports, however instead of fighting for their lives against the Ancheran attackers, the Encantado rioted abroad the landing transports, either crashing them, destroying them inflight and in three cases used their captured vessels to kamikaze supporting Republic warships. In total the entire use of Encantado as shock troops was a disaster, resulting in landing Republic marines having to contend with added fire from surviving Encantado.
By this time the Ancheran home guard had been reinforced by two more fleets and Blethyn’s fleet was soon cut off from retreat and being destroyed. She ordered her ships to fight to the death but several outright surrendered or attempted to flee. Only seven of the 116 Republic vessels that arrived managed to escape, four others either surrendered or were captured.
With only Blethyn’s flagship remaining, the carrier RMS Hanged Man, she ordered her vessel to crash into Gorchaa Nmria at flank speed. Though mutiny by her senior staff occurred, in light of the Ancheran home guard admiral offering to allow the Republic fleet to surrender and face trial for genocide, Blethyn managed to overpower her officers long enough to issue an executive command to the ship’s flight systems, sending the entire carrier crashing into the planet. At 4.9 km in length, the impact of the craft traveling at full speed, resulted in an explosion equal to 50 teratons of TNT, half that of the asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs. The end result following mega-tsunamis, dust clouds and widespread firestorm, resulted in the deaths of over half of Gorchaa Nmria population, roughly around 3.8-billion.
The event became known as the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria.
Fall of the Lovett Administration
For the genocide of their homeworld in the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria, the Ancheran Federal Union declared immediate war on the Republic of Manhattan, using a blitzing on 5 June 3071 of the Carthage Sector to capture the colonies of Echo, Hannibal, Herodotus or Santa Catarina, while offensive operations in the Republic's Renaissance, Hispaniola and Capitoline Hill Sector by 9 June 3071. Because even first wave of Palash's confession had not reached those regions, they were unprepared when the Ancheran's navy swept in and took the systems.
With the political disaster created by Operation Derringer and Operation British Bulldog and the public fallout of the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria, President Lovett attempted to wash her hands of the situation, as to appear that Blethyn and Palash had worked alone, with Siekmann as an ignorate party supporting them, under the ploy that he too was a victim of Operation Derringer's misinformation.
Siekmann had begun to threaten the president after two of his sons were killed in the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria, Captain Jonas Siekman commanding the destroyer RMS Ruotsinsalmi and Lieutenant Felix Siekman serving abroad cruiser RMS Lucy Hayes. To keep her involvement secret, Lovett had Siekmann killed on 10 June 3071 and made to look like a sucide, while threatening the same on High Commissioner Yamato and Vice Presidents Oettinger, Alvear, Tamar and Mondale.
Yamato Coup d'état
Yamato knew that Lovett's ploy to remove herself from culpability was spiraling out of control and attempts would continue to damage the federal government's public standing. Yamato, with the support of Vice President Oettinger, decided to overthrow Lovett and secure a more executive position over the government in order to launch a sustainable war against the Ancherans, long enough to at least force them to the peace table.
During the funeral for Gunter Siekmann at the Morningside Cathedral on 14 June 3071 in New Harlem, Manhattan, which Lovette attended out of respect for his Siekmann as a victim, Yamato swapped the corpse for a photon warhead. The warhead detonated right as Lovett assumed the podium, killing the President, Vice Presidents Alvear, Tamar and Mondale, with over 2,300 attendees killed and 11,000 outside the cathedral.
Yamato used the power vaccum created by Lovett's death in what became know as the Morningside Cathedral Bombing under the guise of a joint Capecchi and Ancheran plot to overthrow the government to spark a public opinion crisis to seize control of the paralyzed High Congress, securing wide ranging political powers. The position of president was left vacant until the end of the crisis and the High Commissioner was installed as the new commander-in-chief with little supervision or restrictions.
The High Commissioner's first act was to appoint Conrad Bleier as the new Admiral of the Fleet on 18 June 3071, his first order was to secure the Republic front-lines with the Ancheran Federal Union.
First Bellatrix Orionis Uprising
In July 3071, Lovejoy, Tallman and the remains of their Encantado escort, Merrick, Ayso and Calder, retreated to Tallman's homeworld of Nikanorova in order to find allies and contacts in their quest to expose the attempted genocide against the Encantado on Singapore. McNair took her ship to the independent world of Groenlo for repairs and resupply.
Concurrent with this however the Revive the Federation Society, which was based on Nikanorova, planned to support a general uprising of both Prides and Capecchi on nearby Bellatrix Orionis. It was the Society's hope that if they could supply weapons and orbital support long enough, Bellatrix Orionis could successfully break away. It was never their intention for Bellatrix Orionis to remain free, just a distraction for the Republic to concentrate resources long enough so that when Nikanorova launched its own uprising.
Tallman, with her contacts through the Society, attempted to distruad such an endeavor but her input was ignored by the Society's leader, shipping magnet Karen Shiao of Vitsebsk Shipping Incorporated.
On 26 July 2881, Karen Shaio seized eight of her own freighters intending to ship military mutitions meant for the Hispaniola Sector, spacing over 188 members of the crew and sending the freighters to Bellatrix Orionis, sparking what later would be become known as the First Bellatrix Orionis Uprising.
However, the details of Shaio's plans were leaked to the Republic government, who positioned a destroyer squadron to intercept her ships when they dropped out of split space. The moment they dropped out into orbit of Bellatrix Orionis, Shaio's freighter the RMTS Last Cross of Minsk was destroyed and her remaining seven ships ordered to surrender.
Without the weapons and stragetic support, the First Bellatrix Orionis uprising was a failure, nearly 80,000 civilians were killed in the ensueing week long conflict before finally the pro-Republic government declared the fighting had ended. At the same time the Republic Navy stationed at Nikanorova began stragetic strikes to destroyer the Revive the Federation Society, costing it countless members, both public and covert. Hundreds were killed or rounded up by the military and it was only by the use of isolated cells, that a sizable portion of the Society managed to escape.
Tallman's group managed to gain control of the largest cell of the Society, following the destruction of Shaio's at Bellatrix Orionis and evacuated to nearby Konvo.
Free Worlds Alliance Founded
Lovejoy and Tallman were transported by Captain McNair and the Eliza Hendricks to Kovno, where they successfully united the Revive the Federation Society, New Empire Movement and Nikanorova Liberation Front in the July of 3071, thereby establishing the unified Free Worlds Alliance (Free Alliance) in August 3071. While it started on Kovno, their success was promising the aid of the large Encantado on Singapore, who the Republic believed to be largely wiped out.
It had loose organizations distributed across and outside the Republic, notably with backing from King Nikephoros Alessandri of the Kingdom of New Budapest, Chairman Wybert Dobrogost of the Bloemfontein Trade Consortium and Lady Paula Tschida III of the Soo Locks Foundry. Renaud Lovejoy and Myna Tallman were elected the leaders of this unified group.
When the Free Alliance was established, more than 90% of the Free Alliance members were Capecchi, however a noticable number of Prides sympathizers had begun to join the ranks, predominately relatives of officers serving with Admiral of the Fleet Blethyn during the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria.
The general focus of the uprisings were those that surrounded the Free Worlds Alliance and Lovejoy, including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Free Worlds Alliance. Lovejoy participated directly in ten uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Singapore Uprising had failed or ended in massive civilian loses.
On 8 October 3071, Lovejoy ordered the launch of the Konstantinos Uprising on the colony world of Konstantinos.
The revolutionary group was led by the Encantado known as Merrick and initially included 20,000 people, who fought for half a month. While the operation succeeding in toppling resistance to much of the surrounding cities, it was not equipped to hold the planet for longer than a month and given that Göppingen Naval Station and the Republic Fourth Fleet under command of Admiral Paulo Rosa were located only five light-years away.
In order to keep the strategically important world, Tallman secured support from Republic Viceroy Aaron Price. Price would be allowed to maintain his current government and the Free Alliance would withdraw all its military units. Price was considered trustworthy since he had been very supportive of the native Capecchi population, the Cherufe, in exchange for requesting official aid from the Kingdom of New Budapest and not the Republic.
On 12 October 3071, Viceroy Price formally made a plea for aid from King Alessandri, citing his planets semi-automous status and expiration of its mutual defense pact with the Republic almost seven-weeks ago. Unknown to any the Republic ambassador dispatched to review and repropose the treaty had been paid off to delay his transit from Manhattan. The King approved an emergency measure to aide Konstantinos, dispatching the Kingdom Second Fleet under command of the King’s brother, Admiral Theodore Alessandri to render aid and accept a plea of protection.
When Admiral Rosa arrived on 14 October 3071 with much of the Fourth Fleet to render aid to the besieged colony, he was forced to withdraw his heavy units when Admiral Alessandri’s much large fleet made clear Konstantinos was under Kingdom protection and was declaring itself independent with the lapsing of its defense pact with the Republic. Because of the standing Taos Pueblo Treaty, signed on Taos Pueblo in 2981 establishing a non-aggression pact between the two nations, the status of the planet meant that Rosa's fleet was intruding in Kingdom space and was forced to withdrawl under official protest of the Republic.
In late-October, Marcus Devry was involved in an uprising on the four inhabited worlds of Genii-system, Einstein, Newton, Plato and Galilei. The uprising recruited miners and the native Capecchi, the Verrocchio, to rise against the Republic Prides on Einstein. After the uprising failed, Marcus Devry was executed.
Astanvok Transit Station Assassination
In November 3071, King Alessandri dispatched his sister, Duchess Anastasia Stelios née Alessandri and her husband, Duke Nikodemos Stelios, to Astanvok Transit Station in orbit of Svetlaya, in the Vladivostok-system. She was supposed to meet with Republic Ambassador Marika Émilie to discuss the disputed status of Konstantinos.
Ambassador Émilie tried to negiotate a return of the colony world but Duchess Stelios made clear that Konstantinos would remain in the Kingdom of New Budapest. Upon threats of military reprisals by Émilie, using intimidations that the rebels could attempt to turn the situation to war between the Kingdom and Republic to benefit from the chaos. In response the Duchess walked out of the talks.
Émilie had setup a plant, paying off Delgado Amador of Nikanorova Liberation Front, to carry out the murder of the Duchess and Duke, along with their entourage and make it look like an attempt to cover it up as a Republic operation. Amador was found out by members of the Nikanorova Liberation Front and managed to foil the assassination attempt, though Duke Stelios was seriously injured and three members of their entourage were killed.
In response to the attempt to kill the King’s sister, the Kingdom of New Budapest (over urgings of the Free Worlds Alliance not to do so) declared war on the Republic and in short succession launched offensive actions. To salvage the situation, Tallman managed to broker and signed a military alliance between the Ancheran Federal Union and the Kingdom, who were facing a refugee crisis. In exchange for seceding five habitable worlds to the Union, the Kingdom would begin to run joint military operations and have free passage through Union space. The result was the entire Capitoline Hill Sector and the colonies of Bishop, Argus Prime and Concordia being seized.
The Ibanez Uprising was launched on May 22, 3071, on Ibanez. The native Capecchi, the Varela, launched the uprising and captured Ibanez colony. After the uprising began, the Republic government quickly and forcefully suppressed it. Around 200,000 civilians were killed.
On July 6, 3071, Brian Coulby of Nikanorova Liberation Front led an uprising on Emerald, which became known as the Emerald Uprising. Coulby at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to assassinate the provincial governor of Emerald, Viceroy Qiu Aravind. They were defeated after four days of fighting. While the Viceroy was killed, Coulby was captured, and Aravind's bodyguards executed him.
From August to September 3071, the Tortoise Uprising occurred, to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Lovejoy sent Rufino Heshun to assist the revolutionary army and captured the colony in September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Tortoise, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to DeGennaro, while Rufino Heshun returned to Hoc Chiang Station.
Dragons Dawn Uprising
On December 1, 3071, the Dragons Dawn Uprising took place on Dragons Dawn. Lovejoy did not support the operation, because of the anti-Prides violence that ensued. The local Capecchi, the Wani, began ethnic purges of the Prides.
Lovejoy sent Ayso to monitor the situation, to ensure it did not spiral out of control. With eventual success, Ayso managed to weed out and kill the Wani leading the ethnic purges and via public executions, managed to secure both the Wani and the local Prides assistance. Ayso lead the revolutionaries to capture the air-defense towers in Dragons Dawn’s core settlement, Qinglong City.
The Republic government sent troops to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into Draco Belt. After the failure of this uprising was only offset by Lovejoy arriving with five bulk freighters to move as many civilians and their families to Argus Prime.
New Huffington Uprising
On March 27, 1908, Africa Nino launched a raid, later known as the New Huffington Uprising, from a base in Lumeria Belt and attacked the colonies of Forrestal and DeGennaro in New Huffington-system. The struggle continued for fourteen days but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies and Nino was forced to retreat back into the Lumeria Belt.
Second Bellatrix Orionis Uprising
In 2 December 3071, an uprising occurred on Bellatrix Orionis, known as the Second Bellatrix Orionis Uprising. It ended in disaster, as the orbiting Republic cruisers decided to launch a tactical nuclear strike and leveled the tenth largest city on Bellatrix Orionis, Aurum Valley. 800,000 people were killed and the uprising ended as the local government collapsed. However attempts by the Republic to establish a puppet government resulted in failure and Bellatrix Orionis began to collapse in societal warfare and chaos. The Republic declared the colony a disaster zone and attempted to enact another pacification campaign on 19 December by it too only induced more chaos.
December Resource Riots
In December 3071, the progressing Ancheran-Republic War had stalled. Worse for the Republic, the [[Kell'renn Free Trade Consortium] and Shonagar Conglomerate jointly passed resolutions on 8 December 3071, canceling their free trade treaties and embargoing Republic trade, crippling the Republic private sector and leading to an economic crisis among the core colony worlds. The Kell'renn were a major fuel supplier for Republic shipping, while the Shonagar supplied a third of the Republic rare mineral ores.
Commissioner Yamato ordered resource rationing, transferring most of the Republic ore and mineral stores to maintaining the navy and army. This quickly sparked economic riots on numerous Pride colony worlds, inciting unrest on Capella, Aurora, Kilimanjaro and Lambda Libertas. To counter this, Yamato ordered rationing on four Capecchi worlds in the Wrangel Length, transferring resources both destined or produced by the populations. These resources were removed from Patriot, Ventura, Dokken and Chimera, Ark Royal and Archer Prime, leading to near starvation rationing among the populations of Jaenisch, Watson, Erelim, Korrigan, Naiad and Crichton.
By December 3071 the Encantado settlements on Singapore still remained hidden while the Johor-system continued to be heavily militarized, being fashioned into a forward base to reinforce the front-lines in the Ancheran-Republic War.
With the nationalization of the fuel depots on Hsein, war protests began to break out among the Pride populations of the solar system.
A battalion of Manhattan Republic Marines were ordered to Hsein to secure the fuel reserves, after a mass protest against the Republic government's seizure of local development ventures resulted in 17 deaths.
On 12 December 3071, the Free Worlds Alliance convened a conference on Singapore, along with sixty Prides representatives from Hsein and Singapore, including Arturo Moulion, the superintendent of the Hsein mines, and General Cynthia Booth leading the Marine Battalions. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the organization, Merrick and Lovejoy, were elected as commander and chief of staff, with General Booth promising the non-involvement of the marines as long as non-violence against Prides civilians on Hsein and Singapore. Initially, the date of the uprising was to be 26 October 3071. It was postponed to a later date due to presence of three Republic cruisers returning with wounded from the front-lines, along with civilian refugees evacuated from front-lines stations.
Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Republic-held city of Jurong had built bombs, and on 19 December 3071, one accidentally exploded, destroying the Encantado village of Bugis. Lovejoy himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the Kihavi Colonial League at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among Kihavis.
The Republic Viceroy of Singapore, Rufino Cary, tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries but instead stumbled right into an Encantado war camp. Squad leader Ayso and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt on 21 December, 3071.
The revolt was a success; the entire colony of Singapore was captured by the revolutionaries on the morning of 24 December. That evening, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Free Colonies of Johor". The conference chose Udu as the governor of the temporary government.
After Singapore Uprising
After the success of the Singapore Uprising, many other uprisings occurred in other colonies and stations in other systems. Many of the uprisings were followed up with restorations. Some uprisings were more of a revolt for independence, and some were protests or rebellions against local officials, but the outcome was that basically colonies renounced their Republic nationalism and joined the Free Worlds Alliance as active members.
On 22 January 3072, Mikal Gosnell and Jackson Casey headed an armed group, consisting partly of revolutionaries from Singapore and partly of defecting Republic Army units, in a campaign to extend the uprising into Ottawa. They captured the colony and killed the local Republic general. Then they announced the establishment of the Free Commonwealth of Ottawa, joining the Free Worlds Alliance and announced their opposition to the Republic of Manhattan.
In early January 3072, the Kingdom of New Budapest and the Republic managed to establish the Tillohash Accord, a basic ceasefire in order to aid the refugee crisis created among the colonial frontier between the two nations. It was agreed upon for a five-month period that no fighting beyond defensive actions or to enforce their respective spaces, in order to evacuated the estimated 14,000,000 civilians that inhabitated the region.
In order to maintain good standing in their alliance with the Ancherans, the Kingdom loaned several of its top of the line capital ships, flag officers and crews to the Federal Union, under the agreement that they only serve as part of the evacuation of Gorchaa Nmria during the tenure of the cease fire. In doing so the more powerful and advanced Ancheran capital ships and their highly trained crews were freed up for combat duty against the Republic.
It was expressly made clear to the Republic, both publically and personally to Commissioner Yamato that any offensive action by either side would nullify the ceasefire.
Massacre of New Belfast
On 24 January 3072, the Republic and Hanowa Mercantile Guild signed a military alliance, the Hanowa would lease its ground battalions to the Republic.
On the same day, General Le’nive Arnv led more than twenty battalions of Hanowa Mercantile Guild troops to attacked New Belfast, held by revolutionary Leanna Palmer. The attack was successful, and most of the Free World Alliance’s ships and troops were killed. However widespread looting of by the Hanowa troops of both Alliance and Republic settlements, ultimately led to the massacre of its Prides and Capecchi residents. Because Capecchi natives, the Maksimov, had genetic enhancements for night-vision, while the Hanowa were naturally nyctophobia (phobic of the dark), many Capecchi managed to escape the resulting looting and murders. Of critical importance to the later public relations disaster it caused, the rescue of Prides from the Hanowa massacre by the Maksimov would be an iconic action that would set the tone of the war's future.
Republic General John Jean Simons attempted to intervene but Yamato ordered the military not to interfer, both to keep from angering the Hanowa allies and as revenge for New Belfast attempting to break away.
Many of its Prides committed suicide to escape Hanowa pillaging, including General Simons. After intentionally setting the main power plant in the capital of Black River to self-destruct, the largest massing of Hanowa troops was located inside its structure, Simons threw himself the planetary parliament building in blame over being unable to defend New Belfast.
Nearly 1,900,000 residents of New Belfast, nearly a third of the colony’s populations, were killed before the Hanowa battalions were withdrawn.
Congressional Civil War
Recall of the Lesser Congress
Yamato needed to suppress the rebellion and fight against the united Ancheran-Kingdom alliance, but was facing a crippling economic recession from rebellious colonies and corporations. He had insufficient funds, however, and needed to seek money from a newly elected Republic High Congress in 3072.
The majority faction in the new Congress, led by Congressman Stephen Jesse, took this appeal for money as an opportunity to discuss grievances against the Commissioner and opposed the idea of a Republic invasion of Kingdom. Yamato took exception to this "political treason" in war time and dissolved the Congress after only a few weeks; hence the name "the Lesser Congress".
Failure of the Tillohash Accord
Without Congress's support, Yamato attacked Kingdom of New Budapest again in March 3072, breaking the Tillohash Accord after only three months, and suffered a comprehensive defeat at the Kingdom world of Jordanella.
Fall of the Tithonus Sector
Meanwhile, Governor-General Quinten Akilah of Wrangel Length brought in much-needed revenue for Yamato by persuading the local Prides population to pay new taxes in return for promised trade concessions.
In 3072, Yamato had recalled Akilah to the Republic and in 3072 made him Governor of Tithonus Sector, attempting to have him achieve similar results among the frontier colonies even as they were under seige by the Kingdom of New Budapest.
This time he proved less successful and caused numerous logistic problems for the local military. In April 3072 the Republic forces fled the sector in their second encounter with the Kingdom after suffering immense loses. The colonies of Aeon, Aurora and Strayer for captured by the end of the month.
Cessation of the Wrangel Length
Wrangel Length had known continuous war since the rebellion of 3071, with most of the region controlled by the Free Alliance and the Republic. Numerous uprising had erupted in the region, resulting in violent reprisals both by the military and the native Prides. Over the course of a year and a half nearly 1,200,000 civilians had been killed in the numerous police actions, hate crimes and military engagments of rebel factions.
Finally in May 3072 a widespread rebellion broke out on the 27 worlds of the Wrangel Length in a massive coordinated revolution, including several neighboring regions. Supported by Ancherans, Kingdom and Free Alliance they were able to quickly secure nearly three dozen Republic military vessels and topple several major government body.
The freed worlds quickly united to form a coalition government, christened the Western Confederation of Independent Worlds. The three supporting powers quickly signed alliances with the new power and the Republic found its front-line pushed over a third of their territory.
Following the Massacre of New Belfast in January 3072, the Hanowa continued to plague the Votum Venus, Tyche, Contumaza, Gleaves, Himalayas, Ceremonial, Niobe and Erasmus Sectors. Hanowa warbands continued to raid merchant convoys for slaves and goods, while large capital ships would comandeer colonial food harvests and resources. In total millions of credits were lost and near starvation required food convoys to be shipped to Kopman, Everest and Magna Mater, which the Hanowa again raided .
Yamato ultimately was forced to pay tribute to keep the Hanowa from more raids on civilian targets but still fighting on its front lines. If he did not, they would "take" the money by pillaging and burning the colonies and stations of the Republic.
All this put Yamato a desperate financial position. His means of raising Republic revenue without an Republic High Congress fell critically short of achieving this. Against this backdrop, and according to advice from the House of Admirals, Yamato finally bowed to pressure and summoned another Republic High Congress in May 3072.
The new Congress proved even more hostile to Yamato than its predecessor.
It immediately began to discuss grievances against Yamato and his government and with Congressman Jesse in the lead, took the opportunity presented by the Commissioner's troubles to force various reforming measures—including many with strong 'anti-Federalist' themes—upon him.
The legislators passed a law which stated that a new Congress should have complete veto over the Commissioner’s fiscal budget. Other laws passed by the Congress made it illegal for the Commissioner to impose taxes without Congressional consent and later gave Congress control over the Commissioner's ministers appointments. Finally, the Congress passed a law forbidding the Commissioner to dissolve it without its consent, even if its term was up.
Ever since, this Congress has been known as the "Last Congress." However, Congress did attempt to avert conflict by providing Yamato his funds to fight the war with the Kingdom and Ancherans.
Allycia Aodhán supplied evidence to the High Congress in relation Admiral Thomas Kirill's of improper use of the fleet in Wrangel Length, alleging that Kirill was encouraging the Commissioner to use his fleet to execute or kill Congressional members who opposed his power while they transitted to or from their homeworlds. This evidence was obtained from Aodhán's father, Wolfgang Aodhán, a member of the Commissioner's Advisory Council, who refused to confirm it in Congress out of loyalty to Yamato.
On 10 April, Jesse's case collapsed, but Jesse made a direct appeal to Allycia Aodhán to produce a copy of the notes from the Commissioner's Advisory Council. The nots discovered by the younger Aodhán were secretly turned over to Congress, to the great anguish of the older Aodhán, who attempted to kill his son in retribution only to be killed himself in the struggle. These notes from the Commissioner's Advisory Council contained evidence Kirill had told the Commissioner, "Commodore, you have done your duty to the Republic but these men have failed in theirs; and therefore we must absolved ourself from the rules of government, remove the cancer that has grown in the High Congress. Anyone who opposes my rule during this time of war is an enemy of the state and must be dealt with."
Jesse immediately launched a formal inquiry stating Kirill's guilt and demanding that the Commissioner be arrest for treasonous accounts. Yamato, however, guaranteed Kirill that he would not accept the arrest order. Furthermore, the Admiral Courts were opposed to the severity of the arrest warrant imposed upon Kirill. Yet, increased tensions and a plot in the fleet to support Kirill began to sway the issue.
On 21 April, the Congress passed the arrest order (201 in favor, 19 opposed, and 2 abstained), and the Admiral Courts acquiesced. Yamato, still incensed over the Congress’ treatment of his laws, refused. Kirill himself, hoping to head off the civil war he saw looming, pleaded to the Commissioner and asked him to reconsider, willing to accept the arrest order. Yamato finally signed the arrest order on 10 May.
Kirill was arrested two days later on his flagship, the RMS Enos Throop.
In the meantime both Congress and the Commissioner agreed to an independent investigation into the Commissioner's involvement in Kirill's plot. Yamato and his supporters continued to resent Congress's demands, while the Congress continued to suspect Yamato of wanting to impose unfettered Federal rule by military force and lethal means.
Within months, the Prides colony worlds of the Wrangel Length, fearing a resurgence of Capecchi power, started to attack, imprision or in some cases, sparked ethnic cleansing campaigns and soon the entire region descended into chaos. Rumors circulated that the Commissioner supported the riots of the Prides to faciliate an example that his military control was needed, and members of the High Congress soon started murmuring that this exemplified the fate that Yamato had in store for them all.
In 23 May 3072, accompanied by 400 soldiers, Yamato attempted to arrest five heads of the High Congress on a charge of treason. This attempt failed. When the troops entered into Congress, Yamato enquired of Speaker Gennadi Eldon, as to the whereabouts of the five. Eldon proclaimed himself a servant of Congress, rather than of the Commissioner. In retribution Yamato dissolved the High Congress and declared its members under arrest for treason. Most, including Eldon, would be executed. No new High Congress would be elected after this and Yamato assumed power in a dictator-sytled government.
In 28 May 3072, a few days after his failure to capture five members of the High Congress, fearing for the safety of his position following widespread riots for the dissolve of the High Congress, Yamato left Manhattan for a more secure position.
Colonies and stations declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of the Mitteland Sector under the command of Commodore Rodolfo Mohana declared for the Commissioner, but when Yamato tried to acquire arms for his cause from Westphalia, the depository for the weapons used in the previous Ancheran and Kingdom wars, Commodore Maria Nonie, the military governor appointed by Congress in March, initially refused to let Yamato enter the Westphalia armory, and when Yamato returned with more ships, drove them off. Yamato sued a warrant for Nonie to be arrested as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it when JAG officers on Westphalia refused to recognize his power without Congressional approval.
Throughout the mid-year, tensions rose and there was intermittent fighting in a number of places, with the first deaths from the conflict taking place in Kilimanjaro.
At the outset of the conflict, much of the nation remained neutral, though the Republic Navy and most Republic colonies favored Congress and rebels, while the Commissioner found considerable support in Prides colony worlds that made up the core Republic worlds.
Both sides had only about 150 ships of varying classes, with nearly an equal number refusing to take a side and declaring neutrality.
However, the war quickly spread and eventually involved every level of society. Many areas attempted to remain neutral. Some formed system pickets and militias to protect their localities against the worst excesses of the fleets of both sides, but most found it impossible to withstand both the Commissioner and Congress.
Battle of Tartarus
After the debacle at Westphalia, Yamato moved on to Tartarus, where on 22 August 3072, he activated the Republic reserve fleet. The Congress ordered two fleets to the system, soon accompanied by an armada allied Ancheran, Kingdom and Alliance ships.
The fleets engaged Yamato’s reserve fleet however the Commissioner locked out the Azalay Hyper Array, the projectors that allowed for rapid transit between the Republic worlds. The allied fleets could not pursue and the Congress was crippled as Yamato locked their forces out of the critical transit network.
Yamato and Congressional Fleet Raised
When he raised his reserve fleet, Yamato had with him about 20 destroyer squadrons and a small number of troop transports in the Sudogwon Sector and Prospero Sector, and using the Azalay Hyper Array, Yamato’s supporters started to build a larger fleet around the reserve fleet. Yamato moved first to Osmania, and then on to Wynn, because the support for his cause seemed particularly strong in the California Sector and Euphrates Sectors. While passing through Andre Alpha, in what became known as the "Andre Alpha Declaration," he declared that he would uphold the "The laws of the Republic, and the purity of the Prides highest decrees."
The Congressional forces who opposed the Commissioner had not remained passive during this pre-war period. The High Congress quickly signed an alliance with the Free Worlds Alliance, the Ancheran Federal Union and Kingdom of New Budapest, ending the war between any respective ship or colony flying the Congressional flag. While this gave the Congressional forces a great number of ships, supplies and technology, Yamato’s control over the Azalay Hyper Array gave him a greater speed in moving his smaller forces about.
Congress had taken measures to secure strategic stations and colonies by appointing to commanding officer sympathetic to their cause, and on 9 June they had voted to raise an official Congressional fleet and appointed Tsubame Matsuda, Vice Governor of Izanami Sector commander three days later.
Core World Advance
Two weeks after Tartarus, Congressional-loyal Admiral Nadejda Mathilde led her fleet towards Sudogwon, picking up support along the way (including a detachment of destroyers at Van Theodore raised and commanded by Renaud Lovejoy). By the middle of September Mathilde's forces had grown to 21 frigates and 32 destroyer and 10 cruisers.
On 14 September she moved her fleet to Ibanez and then to the Genii-system, a strategy which placed her fleet between the Federal fleet and Manhattan. With the size of both fleets now at their largest, and only Sundiver between them, Mathilde dispatched reconnaissance units to the surrounding systems to determine the location of Admiral Conrad Bleier, in order to knock out the largest Yamato-loyal fleet in the region.
Battle of Daphnis Station
It was inevitable that reconnaissance units would sooner or later meet. This happened in the first major skirmish of the Republic Civil War, when a destroyer squadron loyal to the Congress commanded by High Admiral Stanford Daisuke, defeated a destroyer detachment loyal to Yamato under the command of Captain Jacqueline Danihel in the Battle of Daphnis Station in the Oort Cloud of the Diamond-system, in extreme range of the titular Daphnis Station.
Recovered intelligence and two damaged but functional vessels were returned to Sundiver, where it was discerned the Bleier had amassed his forces and military support structure at Arcadia. However in doing so he had greatly reduced his standing forces in the New York-system, to the point where only a minor system picket remained and ground forces had been reduced to only a policing force.
Rush Towards New York
Daisuke called a council-of-war with the Free Worlds Alliance to discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Bleier's new position near Arcadia and knock out his sizable force, or to launch along the now opened space towards Manhattan and capture the capital. The Council decided to take the Manhattan route, believing a moral defeat would cripple Yamato’s power and add legimacy to the Congressional rule. They also would not to avoid a battle if presented, for the fleet commanders wanted to fight Bleier before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision.
When a spy was discovered transmitting deployment information to Bleier at Arcadia, the allied forces knew they had limited time to act before the Federal forces moved to reinforce Manhatan. Accordingly, the fleet left Wynn on 12 October, gaining two days' start on the enemy. This had the desired effect, as it forced Admiral Bleier to move to intercept them instead of entrenching his forces.
The first battle fought at Mariposa on 23 October 3072, proved a near disaster for the allied Congressional forces but it was only through the combined strategy of the Blue Alliance and the Congressional forces, along with Ancheran technology, they managed to drive Bleier into retreat to New York.
Battle of Manhattan
The Battle of Manhattan was the most important naval battle of the entire Congressional Civil War and one of the most pivotal of the Lovejoy Revolution. Between 24 and 27 October 3072, the Allied Navy decisively defeated an Federal Navy fleet in orbit of the gas giant Hudson, inflicting irreparable damage on the Federal fleet.
The Federal operation sought to eliminate the Allied strategic forces, thereby giving Yamato's forces free reign to attack the Congressional supporting worlds without direct naval confrontation. Yamato hoped that a demoralizing defeat would force the Congress to capitulate and thus ensure Federal dominance against the Rebels and ultimately force another cease fire with the Kingdom, allowing him to focus his military forces against the Ancherans and the Kingdom.
The Federal plan was to lure the Allied' ships into a trap, by making them believe that Ticonderoga Defense Station, Conti Defense Station, and Brewerton Defense Station had been seized by Congressional-loyal forces and were holding the Federal fleet in the system at bay. In reality only Tompkins Defense Station had been seized by Congressional-loyal forces and was being largely blockaded by Federal-loyal ships.
The Federal-loyalist's plan was handicapped by three faulty assumptions:
- Belief that the Congressional and Rebel forces lacked proper military training, slowing the reaction and poor initial dispositions.
- Federal comm. officers allowed them to use a Morse-code like system by pinging energy pulses into the magnetic field of Hudson, detectable to all ships that would be caught in the resulting reverberation.
- Assumption that the entire crews of the three defense stations were completely loyal or scared into submission.
Chrysler Caseway Hostage Situation
In order to secure this loyalty among the more questionable officers of the defense stations (these station crews were staffed by the New York Home Guard, not the Republic Navy), Federal commanders supported the kidnapping of family members or friends to secure loyalty. Among the nearly 12,000 taken hostage on Manhattan, the sons of Commander Sacha Amala, chief engineer of Ticonderoga Defense Station were taken. However the transport carrying them to a hold facility in the city of Chrysler Caseway was downed in a storm near seaside city of Port Greenwich. Though Amala's sons Damian Amala and Timothée Amala did survive the crash, nearly 400 passengers died and news agencies erroneously reported the ship had crashed with all abroad killed. Commander Amala as such believed his sons had been killed.
Arrival in New York
Unknown to the Federal commanders, several freighters transiting through Hudson had inadvertently intercepted the comm. pulses and handed the information to members of the Free World’s Alliance. This allowed rebel code-breakers to determine the Federal fleet knew they were coming and preparing an ambush, enabling the forewarned Allied forces to set up an ambush of its own. They were however were still unaware that the defense stations were not under Congressional control.
The fleet jumped in at extreme-range to Hudson, near the moon Tear of the Clouds, and began basic comm. chatter to appear as the main combat force preparing an in-system micro-jump to one of the defense stations, thereby using its cover to launch a strike on the Federal fleet. Such an action would be common for large fleets preparing for immediate combat, but require their shields be down and their broadside torpedoes loaded. Any surprise attack during this period could be disastrous in derailing such an operation.
The four Federal carriers - RMS Sun, Judgment, Arcana and Hermit began to launch fighters, intending to send the crafts to spring the trap on the Allied force and disable their split-drive engines, then move heavy units in for their own in-system jump and decimate the Allied fleet. Since the fighters would accelerate to their maximum thrust, then cut power, they would be undetectable until they either entered radar range or reactivated their power systems. Most of the fighters would exhaust over 70% of their on-board fuel, meaning they would beyond their terminal recovery distance. It was the intent of the Federal planners to have the use the fighters to cripple the Allied fleet, then break off as heavy capital ships engaged, waiting for recovery by the carriers.
The Allied forces were aware of this action having determined the Morse-code sequence and used several inter-system shuttles to capture the signals and transmit it to a destroyer waiting over Hudson's southern pole. It was the intention of Allied flag officers to wait for the fighters to reach terminal range before commencing one of the most complex in-system jumps in known history, coming in on the Federal's fleets starboard-stern flank and open fire with fully ballistic volleys, hitting the fleet on a front that was entirely undefended.
It was at this instance that Commander Amala decided to act. Locking himself in Reactor Control Alpha-12 of Ticonderoga Defense Station and increased the artificial gravity, grisly crushing the entire crew save himself. As he lacked the access codes to seized control of the entire facility and turn its weapons on the Federal fleet, Amala instead set the main reactor to overload.
Moments later the entire Ticonderoga Defense Station exploded, the resultant shock wave destroyed RMS Judgment and Arcana, while severally damaging the RMS Sun and Hermit, along with eleven destroyers and six cruisers either destroyed or damaged.
Attempting to regroup, the Allied fleet, believing the Federal fleet had launched an attack against the defense stations to prevent their use by the Allies, jumped onto the enemy’s flank and opened fire.
RMS Hermit, twelve cruisers and Mathilde’s remaining fourteen destroyers were lost and with nearly half of the fleet destroyed and all of her capital ships downed, Admiral Mathilde ordered an immediate retreat, against the orders of Commissioner Yamato. As a result of her actions, Mathilde was executed on Yamato's orders.
Yamato and his forces were forced to withdraw to Chenzhou. This colony would serve as his base for the remainder of the war.
Without orbital military support, the Allied forces captured Manhattan and the entire New York-system. While Congressional forces identified it as their headquarters, the Alliance chose to keep their operations headquarters on Singapore.
Commonwealth Defense Pact
With the capture of Manhattan, the Congressional forces attempted to legitimize their rule by enacting a new and formal government. To distance themselves from the corruption of the Republic, they declared their government to be the United Stellar Federation, an administration based on internal colonial independence but a unified military structure.
The first act of the Federation was to propose the foundation of a multi-governmental defense alliance and free trade pact against the Republic, inviting the Ancherans, Kingdom, Alliance and Western Confederation to join. To incentivize the groups, the Federation promised reparation payments to all parties to be paid over a two-century period, with the highest amount being awarded to the Ancherans which included the full terraforming costs of their homeworld.
All parties accepted, resulting in the formation of the Allied Commonwealth of Star Systems.
Retreat of Linn Ka Shing
Admiral Jerrik Gnaeus resumed raid operations against the manufacturing stations in orbit of Linn Ka Shing, this time with success. McNair and Lovejoy had been fighting in the Sancus since January 3073, their forces were both in need of desperate repairs and dangerously under supplied.
Even with the support of the station personnel, resistance was too weak for Gnaeus’ increasing forces. An attempt was made to relieve them by bringing up the Commonwealth's forces in from the Haya and Verrazano Sectors but those took too long to muster up. Finally without any hope of relief McNair and Lovejoy reluctantly ordered all Linn Ka Shing assets to be abandoned and retreat on 6 June 3073.
At about the same time, Westphalia itself narrowly escaped capture by the Republic forces through the treachery of Mitteland Sector Governor Gunnar Cohen and his son, Commodore Joakim Cohen of the Mitteland Sector Pickett.
Commodore Cohen had shuffled his units around to ensure only ships and crews loyal to him or the Federal cause, ensuring that units that were loyal to the Federation-cause were dispersed to the sector borders with Fortune, Sultan and Batavi Sectors, while leaving Westphalia and Zegarewski. At the same time Governor Cohen had rotated security forces on Westphalia to rural areas, intending to keep them separated and disorganized. To achieve this he fashioned a fake terrorist campaign by the native Capecchi, the Jötunn.
It was there plan that a Federal-loyal fleet would cut through the sparsely populated Haya and Galton Sectors, capturing the colony with support of its defense fleet and most of its heavy ground units deployed distantly in the field.
However the 18 June 3073 Lovejoy and McNair, retreating from Linn Ka Shing, arrived at Westphalia. Both Cohen's attempted to push the fleets to move on to Egeria, but that region lacked any dedicated shipyards or industrial support base for capital ships. Lovejoy deduced the ploy and at the insistence of Lovejoy and of Captain Horácio Nima, the military attaché to Governor, the senior Cohen was arrested, though Commodore Cohen managed to breakout his father flee and attempted to flee the system to Federal space abroad his flagship, the RMS Henrik Gerner. But both father and son were seized by the citizens and afterwards executed.
In order to continue the ruse and catch the approaching Federal fleet in an ambush, McNair took command of Cohen's former flagship. Unable to call in reinforcements without alerting the enemy, McNair instead opted for deception.
Ambassador Thorton himself arrived on 25 June 2013 with a surprisingly small number of capital ships and a large flotilla of troop transports to secure Westphalia. McNair, posing as Commodore Cohen, moved the Henrik Gerner and seven destroyers to escort the force inbound.
She waited until the enemy fleet had moved into the gravity well of the Jovian world of Paderborn and opened fire. Without point defenses functioning or most of its crews at defense stations, the damage to the enemy ships was complete, all seventeen troop transports were disabled and over 54,000 Federal marines and several platoons of Hanowa soldiers were captured. Thorton and his merger defense force had not charted the gravity fields and eddies of Paderborn, meaning they had to compensate when ordinances were exchanged. Because of knowing what to expect, McNair knew that most of Thorton's plasma weaponry had to function at a high frequency to overcome the magnetic fields of the gas giant. As such, she could move her ships into a significantly closer range and allowing her to inflict immense damage without fear of equal reprisals.
Ambassador Thorton finally retreated with only three of his original nine destroyers, four had been disabled and two had been destroyed.
Battle of Bellatrix Orionis
In the Al-Balkhi Sector, a Commonwealth force under Commodore John Gell besieged and captured the colony of Bellatrix Orionis, after the death of the original commander, Admiral Jacek Vasuda. This group subsequently joined forces with Commodore Regana Christabelle to fight the inconclusive Battle of Sikhye (19 March 3073), where the Republican commander, the Governor of Sudogwon, was killed. Subsequent battles at Valiant and at Hellion however went to the Federal forces.
Seige of Ariel
The Commissioner's plan of operations for the next campaign in April 3073 was to reclaim Manhattan. While he controlled some of the oldest and most economically successful worlds, their collective GDP was comparable to the single GDP of the New York-system. To reclaim it would give Yamato's fraction immense economic clout, allowing the government to pay tributes to the Hanowa and even secure military units from the Kihavi Colonial Alliance.
The Commissioner's fleet, based around Chenzhou, was counted sufficient to match Admiral Mathilde's forces based in the system. Partner to this, in Sudogwon and Haya Sector, the Federal fleets were to fight their way inwards towards Manhattan. After that, all three fleets were to converge in Manhattan and blockade it, cutting off the Admiral David So supplies and the vital trade revenue that currently was supporting the entire Congressional faction’s financial structure, and to starve the Commonwealth forces into surrender or at least collapse the fledging alliance. The condition of this threefold advance was of course that the enemy should not be able to defeat the fleets in earnest and would most likely retreat. Yamato was confident that with So’s fleet under supplies, he would disperse his ships which would then be hunted down by Yamato’s forces.
It was the feeling among Yamato’s flag officers that the Commissioner's plan was not sound; the material investments would guarantee damage to the three largest Federal armadas. At conservative estimates, at least 60% of the units involved would require upwards of two to three months of repair and resupply. Assurances to hold the system afterwards could not be guaranteed, as the neighboring Haya Sectors, Galton Sectors, Setee Cidades Sector, Washington Sector, Colosseum Sector and Al-Balkhi Sector were home to sizable Commonwealth fleets.
Ambassador Thorton and his surviving units from Westphalia returned on 5 April 3073. The ambassador however had falsified records, starting that he had destroyed McNair's fleet at Westphalia and occupied the planet. It was the Ambassador's plan to wait for his vessel to be repaired and resupplied, then fleeing to Kihavi space, where he could disappear with a sizable amount of embezzled funds.
Yamato however ordered Thorton to remain behind at Chenzhou with a token force of destroyers. This was because of Maidu, Wotan and Washington Sector in the hands of the Congress, constituted a menace that the Federal strategists of Sudogwon and Prospero Sector refused to ignore.
The fleets departed on 23 April, intending to arrive in New York on 29 April. Yamato himself personally was leading the Chenzhou departing fleet. Unknown to any Admiral McNair, in conjunction with Admiral Dominic Bellver left Kilimanjaro to undertake the siege of Ariel.
Ariel was the most important point in the circle of fortresses surround Chenzhou, providing the key link in their defense grid by acting as its central communication hub. After a vain attempt at relief from nearby Halliwell, Ariel surrendered to her on 26 April 3073. Yamato made his final leg stop for reconnaissance information 11 light-years from New York-system, he intercepted news reports of McNair and Bellver’s capture of Ariel.
Deducing that Thorton had lied to him and that his front-line was in jeopardy of being pushed back a sector, Yamato ordered his fleets recalled and redeployed, but personally led his contingent back to Chenzhou. Upon arriving Thorton made ready to depart the system, scheduled for a tour of the New Genesis, Tithonus, Paredes, Tres Gauls and Nihon Sector. The Commissioner decided to make a short pass to exchange data packages and then head in system. Upon reaching well inside their weapons range, Yamato opened fire, destroying Thorton and his ship, the RMS Lindormen.
Formation of the Blue Fangs
Turning the Tide
In general, the part of the war with the Commonwealth went well for the Republic. The turning point came in the late-year of 3073, when the Admiral Mary McNair's fleet forced the Commissioner to raise the Siege of Nikanorova and then brushed the Republican fleet aside at the First Battle of Kovno (20 September 3073), in order to return triumphantly to Manhattan.
Political maneuvering to gain an advantage in numbers led Yamato to attempt to negotiate a ceasefire in Wrangel Length separate from the Commonwealth, freeing up troops to fight on the Republic side, while Congress offered concessions to the Hanowa in return for aid and assistance. The attempt to negotiate with the Wrangel Length fell through but with the Hanowa, he managed to secure several brigades of troops.
With the help of the Ancherans, Congressional forces won at Covenant (2 July 3074), gaining the New Genesis Sector. Lovejoy's conduct in this battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his potential as both a political and an important military leader. The defeat at the Battle of Herald in the Noctuidae-system, however, marked a serious reverse for the Congressional forces. Subsequent fighting around Kovno (27 October 3074), though tactically indecisive, strategically gave another check to Commonwealth.
Commonwealth Foundation & War with the Republic
Ordinance of Unification
In January 3074 the Commonwealth forces reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish.
At this period in the war each of the five major factions and governments against Yamato's forces was compromised in some form.
- The Ancheran Federal Union had completed the evacuation of their homeworld of Gorchaa Nmria and had begun recovery efforts to repair the damage done to their planet following the Butchery of Gorchaa Nmria. As such their resources were stretched thin and offensive operations against the Republic had to be suspended. Their government was strapped both for capital ships and ground forces while facing a supply crisis.
- The Kingdom of New Budapest was also facing a strategic shortage, maintaining military control of the Aeon, Aurora, Strayer, Bishop, Argus Prime, Konstantinos and Concordia had proved a stretch for their resources. Continued military operations were proving difficult to supply, Kingdom warships were larger, carried more weaponry and heavier armor than their Republic counterparts but their supply consumption doubled and flight range were nearly half, meaning long-range offensive actions without a support-base were dangerous if not impossible.
- The Western Confederation of Independent Worlds was instead facing an economic crisis as the newly formed government lacked any interstellar corporations or major financial backing. In order to maintain a multi-world alliance, they were required to take out several loans and aide packages from the Kihavi Colonial Alliance, a fact that caused great unrest in the nominally independent and isolationist Capecchi.
- The Free Worlds Alliance on the other hand was more widespread and able to engage in long-range operations, but could not muster any significant capital ship for combat, meaning that in the face of concentrated military actions they were unable to launch much resistance without significant casualties. The Alliance functioned best as in small cells, acting best for espionage, sabotage and coordination of civilian uprisings, they were not a true military force when compared to other powers.
- The United Stellar Federation controlled over half the Republic's space but not it’s most economically or resource successful planets. Most were poorer Capecchi worlds or frontier outposts, the level of development was among some of the lowest in the Republic. At the same time they were locked out of the Azalay Hyper Array, the system that allowed for rapid and cheap transit across the Republic. As Yamato's forces control the master codes, they could not be locked out of the arrays if a gate was left online and reprogramming even a single length of the system would require more funds than the Congress had access to. As a result the valuable shortcut was off limits and to secure their worlds, many of the Arrays had to be depowered to prevent Republic intrusion.
Lovejoy and Tallman called a bilateral conference on Van Theodore and in conjunction with Admiral Mathilde, Congressman Jesse, King Alessandri, Confederation President Marcus Chasseur and Ancheran Pricep Meadra Maramonn decided to pass the Ordinance of Unification, by which all signatory parties agreed laid down their commands, and re-organized its main forces into a cohesive military.
It was not without attempts by Yamato to disrupt and a near assignation of the conference, but his agents were unsuccessful.
The Majorelle Fleet (Blue Fleet) was founded on 4 January 3074, the militaries of all the powers combined under the command of Commodore Elijah Balthazar, with McNair as his second-in-command and Admiral So as his third.
In its first two engagements the Blue Fleet won decisive victories—the Battle of De Larrian on 14 June and the Battle of Aphrodite on 10 July—the Commonwealth effectively destroyed Yamato’s fleets in both situations.
By this time the Commissioner had solidified his position on and around Chenzhou in late August 3072, fighting had already started on a small scale in many sectors; each side endeavoring to secure, or to deny to the enemy, fortified space stations, territory, and above all arms and money.
Soon, Yamato increased his fleet from fewer than 150 ships to almost equal the Commonwealth's fleet, though greatly lacking in arms and equipment. The Commonwealth fleet had about 200 ships, plus detachments. It was organized during July, August and September about Manhattan, and moved to Sudogwon under the command of Admiral Mary McNair.
At this moment, the most of the systems surrounding were in arms for the Commissioner. Admiral Jerrik Gnaeus was raising troops and supplies for the Commissioner, while Ambassador Calvin Robinson was busy in Kihavi Colonial Alliance, arranging for the importation of war material and money. In Sudogwon and Prospero Sector, opinion was divided, the Federal cause being strongest in Tigre Sector and on Torun.
The important trade port of Westphalia, had a Prides population, supported the Commissioner but Commodore Maria Nonie, the military governor, and the garrison supported Commonwealth. Yamato had previously tried to seize ammunition stored in the colony but had been forcefully rebuffed.
The Sudogwon and Prospero Sector Prides population made an attempt to neutralize the sector, but a local struggle soon began, and Admiral Gnaeus thereupon prepared to invade Sudogwon and Prospero Sector. The whole of the colonies in the galactic south and east, as well as parts of the Al-Balkhi Sector and the west, and the important stations of Canaan and Nikanorova, stood on the side of the Commonwealth.
Second Battle of Daphnis Station
On 13 September Commissioner Yamato moved to Valera, in order to find recruits among his sympathizers and arms in the armories of the Pequod and Osmania, system pickets and also to keep in touch with his disciples on Manhattan by way of Tigris.
In response to block him off, Admiral McNair launched her fleet into Sudogwon Sector, the main campaign opened.
Near here, a sharp engagement at Daphnis Station, took place on 23 September between the advanced destroyer squadron of Mary McNair's fleet, and a force under Admiral Gnaeus, which was engaged in protecting the retreat of the Chenzhou detachment. The result of the fight was an ambush of the Commonwealth destroyer squadron. McNair jumped to engage and managed to inflict moderate damage on Gnaeus' fleet, however the Federal Admiral chose to open fire on Daphnis Station, destroying the facility before retreating with his fleet.
McNair was forced to instead rescue the 340,000 civilians trapped on Daphnis Station instead of pursuing.
In the remains of his realm Yamato attempted to recover a stable base of support by consolidating the Sudogwon Sectors, Centurion Sector and Pospero Sector. He began to form an axis between Chenzhou and Anson based on Zixing Station near Chenzhou. Those stations had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than to others. He took Powlette, which lies between them, but found his resources exhausted. Having little opportunity to replenish them, in May 3074 he sought shelter with a Hanowa fleet near Marc-André.
Yamato took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate a secret treaty with the Hanowa on 28 December 3074. Under the agreement, called the "Entanglement", the Hanowa undertook to invade the Congressional regions on Yamato’s behalf and restore him to power and to aid him against the Kingdom of New Budapest.
A series of mass civilian uprisings throughout the Commonwealth-controlled space supporting the federal power of Yamato and supported with the belief that the Commonwealth was a Capecchi puppet organization, coupled with a Hanowa invasion occurred in the mid-year of 3074. Forces loyal to Congress put down most of the uprisings in the Republic after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Samut Prakan Sector, Tethys Sectors and Algonquian Sector, the rebellion in Nihon Sector, and the Hanowa invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges.
New Huffington Coup
In early 3074 the New Huffington Tourism Corp attempted to seize control of the New Huffington-system for Yamato. Captain Reuben Wincenty defeated the Federal rebels at the Battle of Forrestal (8 May) and the rebel leaders surrendered to McNair on 11 July after the protracted two-month siege of New Huffington. Commodore Johan Balthazar defeated a Republican uprising in Samut Prakan Sector at the Battle of Etemenanki on 1 June. Balthazar, after his success at Etemenanki and the pacification of Samut Prakan Sector, turned to reduce Tethys, where, under their ardent, experienced and popular leader Commodore Ravi Alojzy, the Republicans had taken up arms in great numbers. Balthazar soon drove the enemy into Glucksburg Sector, but his first attack on Halske met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege and blockade of the region.
Thanks to Salima's successes, the Hanowa commander, the Huntleader Gaenor, had perforce to take the trade route through Capella in his pro-Federal Hanowa invasion of the Republic. The Rebels under Lovejoy engaged the Hanowa at the Battle of Ark Due (17–19 August). The battle took place largely at the moon of Japheth near Noah in Ark Due, and resulted in a victory by the troops of Lovejoy over the Republicans and Hanowa commanded by Hamilton.
New Lines Established
The original plan of the Commonwealth, which directed the military and civil policy of the allies after the fashion of a modern cabinet, was to combine Mary McNair's and Mathilde's fleets in an attack upon the Commissioner's fleet. Zegarewski was appointed as the place of concentration.
The Republicans considered their own position to be hopeless. Vice Admiral Gregor Rónán was engaged in the fruitless siege of the Washington Sector. Daisuke himself came to Chenzhou on 25 April 3074 to urge that his new fleet should be kept free to launch to aid Rónán. This was because Chenzhou's defense fleet was now threatened, owing to the Commonwealth’s larger fleets.
There was no further talk of the concentric advance of three fleets on Manhattan. The fiery High Admiral and the methodical Commissioner Yamato were at one, at least, in recommending that the Hunan-system, with its own garrison and a mobile force, should be the pivot of the field fleets' operations. Admiral Gnaeus needing above all, adequate time for the development of the offensive, was not in favor of abandoning any of the barriers to Admiral McNair's advance.
Fall of Chenzhou
It was now possible for the Commonwealth to approach Chenzhou. Powlett was no sooner abandoned by the Federal forces than on 26 May 3074, Admiral Xavier Zinoviy and McNair's fleets united there – still, unfortunately for their cause, under separate commanders. Admiral Connor Yima joined Zinoviy at Powlett to place Chenzhou under siege. From Powlett, Admiral McNair moved direct on Chenzhou. Zinoviy moved towards Anson, where he could give a hand to Admiral Rudolf Tillo.
Affairs seemed so bad in the west (Rónán, with a whole fleet was still vainly besieging the Washington Sector) that the Commissioner dispatched Commodore Caleb Yasser to take charge of Canaan. Nor were things much better at Chenzhou. The barriers of time and space, and the supply area had been deliberately given up to the enemy. Yamato was practically forced to undertake extensive field operations, with no hope of success, save in consequence of the enemy's mistakes.
The enemy, as it happened, did not disappoint him. The Commissioner conducted a skillful maneuver and managed to swing his forces around the Commonwealth’s flank and into the nearly undefended Samaria Sector, capturing the colony of Shiloh with little resistance. Admiral McNair fell back to Commonwealth flanks to re-establish a defensive line and organize the local security forces. She left Zinoviy to the secondary work of keeping the Commissioner away from Chenzhou and reducing the fortress world.
Yamato made up his mind to return to Chenzhou and recapture his fortress. From Erebus, therefore, he moved to Chenzhou, gathering local conscripts. Zinoviy followed him closely. When the Commissioner turned upon Browne's motley host, Zinoviy appeared in time to avert disaster, and the two fleets worked away to the upper Cherwell.